- In November, A.Z. Hilali, writing in the Frontier Post had a good summary of the numerous problems facing Swat. On the same site, I also read a really interesting history of the princely state of Swat.
While searching for some history on the Razakar movement in Hyderabad, I found this blog post that provides a good summary of the history of the Hyderabad princely state:
Qasim Razvi and his Razakars
Pakistan was quite interested in the events unfolding in Hyderabad Princely State. Qasim Razvi, a strong proponent of Pro-Pakistan lobby, and his militia, called Razakars, was supported by Pakistan to create unrest in the region.
The Communist Party of India took arms and created a rebellion of peasants against Nizam Rule and the landlords. It was the first of its kind in India where peasants revolted against landlords (called Zamindars) and kicked them out. The land was seized from the landlords and distributed to the landless. Nizam took the help of Razakars to crackdown on rebellion. The infamous Razakar Movement has results in many deaths. Razakars resorted to robbery, rape, murder and arson. Many people escaped to nearby districts in Maharashtra during this time.
Annexation of Hyderabad
Sardar Vallabhai Patel under Nehru Government decided to intervene. The police action, called Operation Polo, was launched on 13th September, 1948. Within four days, Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam, surrendered. So, the people of living in Hyderabad State obtained Independence after one year, on 17th September, 1948.
What followed next is an extremely sad episode of Hyderabad State. 27,000 Muslims or more were killed as a reaction against Razakar Movement. The worst affected regions were rural areas where Muslims were in minority. The badly affected regions were Osmanabad, Gulbarga, Bidar and Nanded. Many Muslims poured into Hyderabad city to escape from Hindu backlash.