I was reading about Mehdi Bazargan, the first prime minister of Iran after the Iranian revolution. This is a good quote:
Imam [Khomeini] wants Iran for Islam and we want Islam for Iran.
which illustrates the difficulty of beginning a nationalistic political movement in the name of Islam. Islam usually ends up completely dominating nationalism.
Overall, between the far left marxists and the right-wing clerics, Bazargan was in a pretty unenviable position within a few months of the revolution:
Another task Bazargan faces is securing for his provisional regime the power still held by the shadowy Islamic Revolutionary Council. This secretive group, which is believed to be composed of high-ranking Shi’ite leaders and a few civilians and led by Khomeini, amounts to a parallel government, one that has not always bothered to let Bazargan know what it is doing. The Prime Minister was embarrassed last week to learn that without his knowledge, four more of the Shah’s generals had been executed after being convicted in a secret tribunal authorized by the council. Worse yet, from Bazargan’s viewpoint, the 10,000 to 15,000 heavily armed mojahedeen, who profess allegiance to the council, pay no heed to his government’s commands. To curtail the council’s power, Bazargan has introduced legislation to create a system of revolutionary courts to take over further political trials. He also ordered the newly appointed Minister of National Defense, Ahmad Madani, and Armed Forces Chief of Staff Mohammed Qarani to set up a new national guard. Its ultimate task: disarming both the Marxist fedayeen and the Islamic mojahedeen.